Let me tell you first what is lipid(fat)?
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• The term fats and lipids used interchangeably
• Approx. 98 % of dietary lipids exist as triglyceride
• 90% of body total fat stored in adipose tissue.
Fat is essential nutrients, you body does not produce fat by itself. Fat is healthy nutrient which is important for your brain and heart.
Example of good fat:- almonds, fish oil, walnuts, peanuts, cashew, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, peanut butter and almond butter. They are all healthy source of fat for your heart and brain.
Classification of lipids:-
Vegetable oils high in saturated fats.
• Saturated fatty acids from plant kingdom includes coconut and palm oil.
Palm oil – 50% saturated , Coconut oil – 92% saturated
• saturated fatty acids has high melting points.
Raise the cholesterol level in the blood as well as LDL (bad cholesterol)
Monounsaturated- contains 1 double bond along the main carbon-chain
- Monounsaturated fatty acids liquid at room temperature.
- Source- mostly from plants(olive oil and peanut oil).
- Canola oil had both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats.
- Fish oil- Omega -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that come from fish. They did not have much effect on cholesterol. They lower the total amount of fat in the blood(reduce triglycerides). They help prevent blood clots.
• Polyunsaturated- Polyunsaturated fats liqud at room temperature. Its contain 2 or more double bond along the main carbon-chain, eg. Sunflower oil, corn oil.
They lower the cholesterol, but also reduce HDL (good cholesterol). They supply essential fatty acids to the body.
Trans fatty acids:-
The process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fats to make it more solid and resistant to chemical change. Trans fatty acids occurs naturally at low levels in meat and dairy foods. Trans fats we eat are often due to hydrogenation of vegetable oil to make shortening, margarine, and fats for frying.
The “trans” fatty acids (formed during hydrogenation) may raise LDL and lower HDL level.
Example:-Butter – Margarine (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) .Hydrogenated oil behaves like a saturated fat; the most common hydrogenated fats include lard substitutes and margarine.
Why refined oil is bad for health ?
The answer lies in preparation of oil. Because refined oils are prepared by hydrogenation process. This process is explain below:-
Refined oil refers to spoiled oil.
The refining oil under go many stages:-
Healthy fats turns into trans fat which has adverse affects on our health and create serious problem in long run.
Cholesterol is present in every cell in your body . It is needed to make bile acid, to make cell membrane, many hormones(such as sex hormone), and vitamin D.
Cholesterol is found only in foods of animal origin-egg yolks,meat, organ meats , poultry , fish, milk, and milk products. Lower- fat milk products contain less cholesterol than full fat milk products.
Function of cholesterol:- .
- Food of plant origin contain no cholesterol.
- Cholesterol furnishes a key component for bile synthesis and plays a crucial role in forming tissues, organs, and body structures during fetal development
- Cholesterol help in building plasma membranes and serving as a precursor in synthesizing vitamin D, adrenal gland hormones, and the sex hormones estrogens, androgen, and progesterone.
• HDL high density lipoproteins:- (good cholesterol), produced in liver & small intestine , contain highest % of protein(50%) & least total lipid and cholesterol(20%).
Fat in bloodstream that is in route to the liver where it is processed and excreted from the body.
HDL works to minimize the harmful effects of LDL by causing it to be the removed from the bloodstream and excreted.
• VLDL very low density lipoproteins: – formed in liver from fats, alcohol & cholesterol,
contain highest % of lipid(95%), fewest protein component.
• LDL (bad cholesterol)- contains 60-80% of total cholesterol, greatest affinity for cells of arterial wall.
Fat in the bloodstream that is on its way to cell for storage (including the cells that line the artery walls)
Saturated fat cause the body to produce LDL.
Importance of lipids
The body mass of males consists of 15% of fats and
25% of that of females consists of fat.
- Heart disease
- Too much circulating cholesterol leads to plaque.
- Myocardial infarction.
Fat contributes 50 to 70% of the energy requirement during light- and moderate-intensity exercise. Stored fat plays important role during prolonged exercise. Fatty acid molecules provide more than 80% of the exercise energy requirements. . Aerobic training increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation during mild-to-moderate–intensity exercise.
Source of healthy fats:-
Avocado is extremely high in healthy fats food can lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise good cholesterol. . Fat content in avocado even higher than animal foods. The fatty acid present in olice acid, which help to reduce inflammation and the risk of breast cancer.
Extra virgin olive oil contains healthy fat and antioxidants that improve cardiovascular health.
Cold pressed oil:-
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